This section of the Colca Valley has been influenced by earthquakes, volcanic activity, and large landslides impounding the valley. Fine lake sediments alternate with coarser fluvial and rock avalanche deposits, and with various volcanic layers. Bank erosion has led to further landslides. The result is a complex, weird-looking topography. A large landslide scarp appears in the left portion of the photograph in front of the village of Madrigal.